Second Law of Thermodynamics

This section introduces the concept of Entropy, Available Energy and Calculation of Irreversibility.

Introduction to Second Law Cyclic Heat Engines Thermal Energy Reservoirs Kelvin Planck Statement Claussuis Statement Refrigerator, Heat Pump and Heat Engine Equivalence of Kelvin Planck and Claussius Statement Reversibility and Irreversibility Causes of Irreversibility Carnot Cycle Reversed Heat Engine Carnot Theorem Question 1 on Second Law of Thermodynamics Question 2 on Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy-Introduction Claussius Theorem Property of Entropy T-S Plots Claussius Inequality Entropy change in irreversible processes Principle of Entropy Entropy Application-1 Entropy Application-2 Entropy Application-3 Entropy Application-4 Processes with Mechanical Irreversibility Entropy Transfer with Heat Flow Entropy Generation in Closed System Entropy Generation in Open System First and Second Law combined Question 1 on Entropy Question 2 on Entropy Introduction to Available Energy Available Energy referred to a cycle Decrease in AE when heat is transferred through finite temperature difference AE from a finite energy source Quality of Energy Maximum Work in a Reversible Process Reversible Work in an Open System Reversible Work in Steady Flow Process Reversible Work in a Closed System Useful work Dead State Availibility Availability in a Steady Flow Process Availability in a Non Flow Process Irreversibility and Gouy Stodola Equation Application of Gouy Stodola Equation Second Law Efficiency Exergy Balance in Closed System Exergy Balance in Steady Flow Process Second Law Efficiency Illustrations Question no. 1 on AE and Availibility Question no. 2 on AE and Availibility

Welcome to the section of Second Law of Thermodynamics. The section is a step ahead of the First Law and develops a better understanding of the various processes in Thermodynamics. This law also introduces a new property "Entropy". 

Important formulas:

Cyclic Heat Engine:


Heat Pump:

Carnot principles:

Claussius Theorem:

  • For Carnot cycle:   


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